Bresnan starred with both bat and ball as England beat Australia by 74 runs in the fourth Test against Australia at Chester-le-Street on Monday as they went 3-0 up with one to play and so won a third straight Ashes series.
He took the key wicket of David Warner to pave the way for Stuart Broad's match-winning spell.
"England and Yorkshire pace bowler Tim Bresnan has been ruled out of the remainder of the international season with a stress fracture in his lower back," an ECB statement said.
"Bresnan will begin a recovery and rehabilitation programme and a date for his return to cricket will be determined in due course."
The first England match Bresnan will miss is next week's fifth and final Test against Australia at The Oval in south London starting on Wednesday, August 21.
Whether the 28-year-old Bresnan will be fit for the return Ashes in Australia starting in November remains to be seen.
He has played in three of the four Ashes Tests to date after replacing Middlesex quick Steven Finn at Lord's, taking 10 wickets.
At Chester-le-Street, Bresnan, batting as nightwatchman, made an important 45 in England's second innings 330.
He then took two wickets for 36 as Australia, chasing 299 for victory, were bowled out for 224, removing opener Warner for 71 before snaring all-rounder Shane Watson for two as Broad took six wickets in the innings with England winning inside four days.
As well as the fifth Test, Bresnan will now miss the two-match Twenty20 series at the end of the month, the lone one-day international against Ireland and the five-match one-day series against Australia which starts at his Headingley home ground on September 6.
Now fast bowler Chris Tremlett has a chance to revive his Test career on his Surrey home ground next week having last featured for England against Pakistan in Dubai in January last year, although Finn will also be hoping for an Ashes recall after playing in the first Test at Trent Bridge.