Dhoni, who reached his maiden double century on Sunday went past Tendulkar's 217 scored against New Zealand in 1999-00 at Ahmedabad.
Dhoni reached the feat in the 144th over when he first hit a flat six off Nathan Lyon to reach 217 and then took a single to surpass Tendulkar's score.
The India captain however fell eight runs short of equalling Andy Flower's highest individual score by a skipper --- 232 against India.
Highest Individual scores by Indian Captains:
224 Mahendra Singh Dhoni vs Aus (Chennai)
217 Sachin Tendulkar vs New Zealand (Ahmedabad)
205 Sunil Gavaskar vs West Indies (Mumbai)
203 MAK Pataudi vs England (Delhi)