The Spanish player was on Liverpool's books between 2005 and 2009 and was part of their FA Youth Cup winning team in 2006.
He made just one substitute appearance for the first team in a Champions League clash with Galatasaray in December 2006.
After being released by Liverpool in 2009, he joined Real Betis but was diagnosed with pelvic cancer in March, 2011.
"Everyone at Liverpool Football Club would like to send their thoughts to Miki's family at this sad time," said a Liverpool statement.
Former Liverpool boss Rafael Benitez tweeted: "I would like to offer my sincere condolences to the family of my former player Miki Roque, it is a tragedy to lose such a good boy so young."