Pacer Umesh Yadav also makes a return from injury and will form the pace attack with Ishant Sharma, Vinay Kumar, Bhuvneshwar Kumar and Irfan Pathan.
Leggie Amit Mishra, one of the leading wicket takers in Indian Premier League (IPL), and off-spinner Ravichandran Ashwin are the two spinners.
The last Champions Trophy will be played in England and Wales from June 6 to 23.
The Sandip Patil-led selection committee also picked 21 probables for the tri-series in the West Indies, which will follow the ICC Champions Trophy. The 15 members of the Champions Trophy squad are also part of the probables.
Gambhir, who is leading Kolkata Knight Riders in IPL, has been included among the probables for the tri-series in the West Indies. The other five probables are Manoj Tiwary, Praveen Kumar, Mohammed Shami, Ambati Rayudu and Rahul Sharma.
Champions Trophy Squad:
Mahendra Singh Dhoni (captain), Shikhar Dhawan, Virat Kohli, Suresh Raina, Dinesh Karthik, Murali Vijay, Rohit Sharma, Ravindra Jadeja, Ravichandran Ashwin, Irfan Pathan, Umesh Yadav, Bhuvneshwar Kumar, Ishant Sharma, Amit Mishra and Vinay Kumar.
Mumbai Roundup: 9 incidents that took place this week
Photos: Ajay Devgn, Parineeti, Tabu at 'Golmaal Again' trailer launch
Photos: Dipika Pallikal Karthik oozes oomph in bikinis and sarees
Photos: Kareena Kapoor Khan's grand birthday bash
Photos: 'Dangal' girls Sanya Malhotra, Fatima Sana Shaikh's dinner outing