The professor had allegedly circulating defamatory cartoons of some Trinamool Congress leaders, including West Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee, police said.
"Ambikesh Mahapatra was arrested late Thursday night and has been booked under several sections of the Indian Penal Code and the Information Technology Act," an officer said.
Mahapatra, a physical chemistry professor, who would be brought before a court Friday, faces charges of outraging the modesty of a woman, punishable with one year's imprisonment, defamation, which carries a maximum term of two years, and hacking, which carries three years' prison term and fine up to Rs.2 lakh.
The cartoon strip based on Satyajit Ray's Sonar Kella shows Banerjee and Railway Minister Mukul Roy discussing how to get rid of party law maker Dinesh Trivedi, who earlier was forced by Banerjee to give up the Railways portfolio.
The arrest has evoked widespread criticism.
Trinamool Congress rebel MP Kabir Suman, condemning the arrest, said: "Even I have received the cartoon and I cannot fathom how it can be a cyber crime. It has been made in good humour. If he can be arrested today, then who knows we may be arrested tomorrow."