The USGS estimated the quake at 8.2 magnitude and placed its epicentre in the Sea of Okhotsk off the shore of the Kamchatka Peninsula at a depth of more than 600 kilometres.
Russia rapidly issued a tsunami warning for Sakhalin island and its region, urging residents to seek higher ground.
But the warning was then lifted with no reports of casualties. The huge magnitude and great depth of the quake meant that its echoes were felt across the Eurasian continent including the Russian capital itself.
"There were repercussions of the quake in Nizhny Novgorod, Moscow and Europe, in particular Romania. Practically the whole continent shook," Anatoly Tsygankov of the state Rosgidromet environmental monitoring service told a news agency.
According to the RIA Novosti news agency, the earthquake was also felt across Russia's Far East and Siberia including big cities like Krasnoyarsk and Blagoveshchensk.
The emergencies ministry in Moscow, which is eight time zones away from the region hit by the quake, said it had received reports early today of phenomena like chandeliers shaking and turbulence in aquarium water as a result of the quake.
"Moscow is part of the zone where possible repercussions from earthquakes can be felt. It's not dangerous but important, for example, for standard construction," Arkady Tishkov of the Geography Institute at the Russian Academy of Sciences said.
He said however that the last time this happened in Moscow was 30 years ago. A 21-storey office building in Saint Petersburg was evacuated after the people working there felt the building shaking.