The Australians, one-up in the series, looked in control at 257 for four nearing stumps, before Swann held a flying catch two-handed at square leg to dismiss the dangerous George Bailey for 53.
Early showers interrupted the morning session but cleared as the day went on with Chris Rogers (72) and Shane Watson (51) putting on a 121-run partnership for the second wicket to help Australia to 155/1 at a point in the second session.
However, three quick wickets saw Australia slip to be four down for 174 at tea before skipper Michael Clarke and George Bailey came together to steady the innings. The pair put on a further 83 before Bailey holed out for 53.
At stumps, Clarke is unbeaten on 48 while wicketkeeper-batsman Brad Haddin is on 7.
Scoreboard at the close on the opening day of the second Ashes Test
Australia 1st innings: Chris Rogers c Prior b Swann 72 David Warner c Carberry b Broad 29 Shane Watson c & b Anderson 51 Michael Clarke not out 48 Steve Smith b Panesar 6 George Bailey c Swann b Broad 53 Brad Haddin not out 7 Extras (B-5, NB-2) 7 Total (5 wkts; 91 overs) 273 Fall of wickets: 1-34, 2-155, 3-155, 4-174, 5-257. Bowling: Anderson 21-9-56-1, Broad 19-3-63-2, Swann 19-2-55-1, Panesar 24-4-68-1, Stokes 8-2-26-0.