The girl was admitted in a hospital with serious injuries, they added.
According to police, the incident occurred late Monday night in a village near Masalpura town in the district, some 200 km from Jaipur.
"The girl had come with her parents to participate in the wedding. Hardayal Kumar, 26, who had also come to the wedding, took her to an isolated place near the wedding venue and raped her," said circle officer Harmukh Singh.
The girl's father suddenly heard her screams, the officer said adding that he located the girl and caught Hardayal in the act.
"However, Hardayal managed to escape. We traced him today (Tuesday) and arrested him," said the officer.
He added that the girl sustained injuries on her private parts.
"She is hospitalised at a hospital in Karauli. Her condition is normal," said the officer.
Spotted: Alia Bhatt, Ranveer Singh, Neha Dhupia in Bandra
Photos: Salman Khan returns from Jodhpur to Mumbai
15 'peach' perfect photos of Priyanka Chopra at People's Choice Awards 2017
62 going on 16: These photos of Rekha prove she is 'forever young'
Photos: Tennis legend Andre Agassi meets Rahul Dravid in Mumbai