Why are urban men diagnosed more often with prostate cancer than rural men?

Oct 05, 2017, 12:14 IST | mid-day online correspondent

Prostate Cancer is the second most leading cause of Cancer in men across India and there are growing incidences of the same. Most commonly diagnosed among men above the age of 50, this form of Cancer if detected early is preventive and curable

Prostate Cancer is the second most leading cause of Cancer in men across India and there are growing incidences of the same. Most commonly diagnosed among men above the age of 50, this form of Cancer if detected early is preventive and curable. 

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Over the last few years, lifestyle factors have played a major role in the increase of prostate cancer amongst men. The growth is attributed to increasing urbanisation and change in lifestyle from simple rural living to more complex urban life. This phenomenon has given way to a shift in the lifestyle, physical and mental balance. Lack of exercise and sedentary lifestyle along with raised stress levels, consumption of fast foods (high in Trans fats), faulty food habits, and eventually reduced sexual activity. Dr. Yogen Chedda – Consultant - Surgical Oncology- HCG Apex Cancer Centre, Mumbai shares a few insights on prostrate cancer.

Prostate Cancer caused due to lifestyle factor can be the following few –

a.Epidemiologic studies have suggested a variety of dietary factors that may be associated with the disease, particularly fat intake and obesity.
b. Due to raised stress levels, there is decreased indulgence of urban population in sexual activity. Studies have shown that 21 ejaculations per month are protective from ca prostate.
However, contrary to the popular myth there is no known link between alcohol consumption and prostate cancer.

Also Read: Your Belly Fat Will Drive You To A Greater Risk Of Cancer

What can a man do to reduce chances of prostate cancer?
There's no proven prostate cancer prevention strategy. But you may reduce your risk of prostate cancer by making healthy choices, such as exercising and following a healthy diet as –
Foods that contain fats include meats, nuts, oils and dairy products, such as milk and cheese.
Fruits and vegetables are full of vitamins and nutrients that are thought to reduce the risk of prostate cancer, though research hasn't proved that any particular nutrient is guaranteed to reduce your risk. Eating more fruits and vegetables also tends to make you have less room for other foods, such as high-fat foods.
Fatty fish — such as salmon, tuna and herring — contain omega-3 fatty acids, a type of fatty acid that has been linked to a reduced risk of prostate cancer.

Who is at the most risk of cancer?
Aggressive prostate cancers may be slightly different than slower-growing types of the disease. Certain risk factors have been linked to the development of more aggressive types of the condition. Higher chances of developing an aggressive prostate cancer is seen in those who are -
Exposed to tobacco usage
Being Obese which can lead to a sedentary lifestyle.
Family history and genetical reasons
Exposed to Agent Orange

How often should one get tested for prostate cancer?
The incidence of prostate cancer has increased in India and accounts to about 7-8 % of all newly detected cancers. It is second most common cancer in males, however if detected at an early stage it has a good percentage of survival. Unlike western countries, men in India do not undergo periodic cancer screening after the age of 50 and most of the cases detected are observed to have already progressed to a higher stage. Thus men aged between 50 and 75 years should undergo regular screening for prostate cancer for early detection.

Treatment of ca prostrate?
Surgery:
Surgery is the removal of the tumor and some surrounding healthy tissue during an operation. It is done to try and eliminate a tumor before it spreads outside the prostate. For prostate cancer, an urologist or urologic oncologist is the surgical oncologist involved in treatment. The type of surgery depends on the stage of the disease, the man’s overall health and other factors. Surgical options include Radical (open) prostatectomy or Robotic or laparoscopic prostatectomy.

Radiation therapy:
External-beam radiation therapy - External-beam radiation therapy is the most common type of radiation treatment. The doctor uses a machine located outside the body to focus a beam of x-rays on the area with the cancer.
Brachytherapy or internal radiation therapy – It is the insertion of radioactive sources directly into the prostate.

Hormone therapy may also be recommended after radiotherapy to reduce the chances of cancerous cells returning. Hormones control the growth of cells in the prostate. In particular, prostate cancer needs the hormone testosterone to grow. The purpose of hormone therapy is to block the effects of testosterone, either by stopping its production or by stopping your body being able to use testosterone.

Chemotherapy is mainly used to treat prostate cancer that has spread to other parts of the body (metastatic prostate cancer) and which is not responding to hormone therapy.


What is the prognosis?
Among the different cancer conditions, prostate cancer grows gradually and slowly spreads. Early detection of low-grade prostate cancer has one of the highest survival rates as follows -
>> Approximately 99% of men diagnosed with most common types of prostate cancer will survive more than five years post-diagnosis.
>> In case of more than 90% of men whose prostate cancer is localized to the prostate or just nearby, the prognosis is observed to be better with the best survival rates for a minimum of 5 years.
According to the most recent data, when including all stages of prostate cancer:

Here’s an overview of survival by stage:
Stage 1:
Almost everyone will survive their cancer for 5 years or more after they are diagnosed.
The cancer is completely contained within the prostate gland. It takes up less than half of one side of the prostate.
Stage 2:
Almost everyone will survive their cancer for 5 years or more after they are diagnosed.
The cancer is contained within the prostate but takes up more than half of one side.
Stage 3:
Almost 95 out of every 100 men (almost 95%) will survive their cancer for 5 years or more after diagnosis.
The cancer has broken through the capsule (covering) of the prostate.
Stage 4:
30 out of every 100 men (30%) will survive their cancer for 5 years or more after they are diagnosed.
The cancer has spread into nearby lymph nodes or organs, or other parts of the body.

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