Konstantin Mrykhin arranged the indoor fireworks display which caused the blaze at the Lame Horse nightclub in Perm, 1,200 km east of Moscow.
Mrykhin, who was arrested in Spain after fleeing Russia in 2010, was also ordered to pay 200 million rubles (over $6 million) in compensation to the relatives of the victims.
The fire, one of the worst in Russian history, prompted checks on many nightclubs across the country.
Charges have also been brought against eight other people, including the club's co-owner Anatoly Zak.
Russia's fire safety record is poor. Around 12,000 people died in fires across the country in 2011, according to the emergencies ministry. The US, with a population over twice as large, saw around five times fewer fire-related fatalities.